Topographic maps

These hand-drawn maps I made for my late father show Beleriand and the isle of Númenor. Elevations follow the descriptions in "Silmarillion" and "Unfinished Tales".

Both maps are enlarged to the same scale to show that Númenor is in fact as big as Beleriand, a fact that is somewhat obscured by the size of the map of Númenor provided in "Unfinished Tales". The colour pattern is that used on modern maps: dark green is lowest, followed by light green through yellow, brown and, ultimately, white. Elevation and vegetation are interpolated from the texts while the submarine shelfs are based on conjecture only. There are a few more roads than on the official maps because, I assumed, they are needed to connect the places of settlement. I also added the port of Almaida to Númenor that is mentioned only in the preface of UT.

Some parts in the north of Beleriand are conjecture. What distinguished Lothlann, a big white blotch on the map, from Ard-Galen, another big white blotch? I assumed that elevation made the difference, and placed Lothlann lower. It is in fact the bottom of an emptied glacier lake that, some time in the Age of the Trees, broke through the natural dam at Maglor's Gap and issued south in a catastrophic flood, carving the valley of the Gelion. Note the distinctly drop-like shape of Amon Ereb that I fancy to be a spur of harder rock which survived the deluge, though battered.

A set of LotR maps drawn at the same scale would require six such sheets, by the way, or eight, if we included the northern extension beyond Forochel. That's why I never produced any (though there is at least a crude colour map of the Shire).

Back to global maps.

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Topographic map of Beleriand

Topographic map of Númenor

Essays collected in printed or electronic books:

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Middle-earth seen by the barbarians: A compilation of Tolkien's references to the Middle Men of Eriador and Gondor: the pre-Númenóreans and the Dunlendings; the concealed history of Dorwinion, the fate of king Bladorthin and the origin of the Lossoth, the culture and history of the peoples in the east and far south of Middle-earth, with special consideration of the Wainriders, the Black Númenóreans and the Corsairs of Umbar. The appendix discusses the name Bladorthin and gives a new interpretation of this enigmatic king, shows how to apply a grid of latitudes and longitudes to the map of Middle-earth and in a previously unpublished essay discusses various comments by Tolkien on Pauline Baynes' recently recovered LotR map. This volume includes updated versions of “The Indigenous Peoples of Eriador and Gondor”, “The Lossoth and the Forodwaith”, “The Men of Darkness”, “The Third Realm in Exile”, “The mysterious King Bladorthin” and “A meridional grid on the map of Middle-earth” from these Science Pages.

The Moon in ‘The Hobbit’: A discussion and digital simulation of the lunar phases stated in ‘The Hobbit’ and ‘The History of The Hobbit’ and their astronomical background, with special regard to the identification of Durin's Day and the threshold of winter; including an analysis of the various calendar systems in ‘The Lord of the Rings’. Many hints are given on how to use the moon and the seasons as plot elements in your own stories. This book has updated versions of the essays “The Moon and Durin’s Day, 2941 TA”, “Midsummer’s eve and the Moon-letters“, “The Reckoning of Time”, “An ephemeris for Bilbo Baggins” and “(Flawed) Astronomy in the History of the Hobbit” from these Science Pages.

Words of Westernesse: A light-hearted introduction into the grammar of Adûnaic, based on Arthur Lowdham's spiritual research in HoMe IX, and (tentative) etymologies of Adûnaic and Westron as far as the corpus of vocabulary has been established. This volumes includes updated versions of the essays “Lalaith’s Guide to Adûnaic grammar” and “Etymologies of the Atani Languages” from these Science Pages.

Dynasties of Middle-earth: Genealogical tables and comments on the lines of the kings of Númenor, Arnor, Gondor, Rohan, Dale and the Princes of Dol Amroth. A shorter version of this volume had been previously presented here as “Genealogies of the noble Mannish houses”.